Agent-Based Simulation to Aid Policy Making in Areas Related to Free Software
Alastair Burt, ASWAD Project/DFKI, Germany
The essence of the free software model that differentiates it so strongly from the closed software counterpart is that information, mainly in the form of program code, is continously shared. To use a term currently made popular by Lessig [Les01] and Bollier [Bol02] it is based around an information commons. The sharing of information is one of the principle motivations of developers in choosing the free software model. The developers typically want to have as many people as possible inspecting the code they put into the commons, improving it, and developing other software that builds upon it. Indeed, the most popular license for free software developers, the GNU General Public License, is designed specifically to keep as much information as possible within the commons. Policies that Endanger the Commons
Although free software is currently enjoying a lot of popularity among developers and end users, there are several trends in the policy making of governments that could prove very harmful to the free software model. Most of these trends derive from an attempt to build a knowledge-based economy on the propertising and privatising of the information commons [Les01,Bol02]. The threats come in three main areas. First, the application of patent law is being extended in many ways into the software field. Patents are actually designed to increase the information commons, but, in so far as empirical studies have been carried out in the software sector, they would indicate that patents have the reverse effect [BM99]. Regardless of the effect of patents on the software sector as a whole, they have a deleterious effect on free software development, unless the patent holder is prepared to allow the unrestricted use of the patented method in free software. Second, copyright laws have a big effect on software development. The current application of copyright has lead to the prevailing closed source development model, although that need not be the case [Les01]. Moreover, the recent legislation that prohibits the reverse engineering of software that processes copyrightable material, and proposed legislation that would give the music and film industry the right to vet computer systems could drive free software from large swathes of the computing landscape. Third, laws associated with warranties for software can also affect free software developers. To make authors liable for all code they contribute to the commons would obviously decrease the amount of code released to the community. Policies that keep authorship and liability separate are to be preferred. Agent-Based Social Simulation
Agent-based social simulation [GT99] lies at the intersection of social science, agent-based computing and computer simulation, where the agents in question are software entities with autonomous control, acting in a goal-directed and / or utility-maximising fashion. Agent-based social simulation offers a third way to consider policy questions [Mos99]. The other two more traditional approaches to policy making are simplistic mathematical models from economics and informal qualitative models from social science.
There are good reasons for thinking that agent-based simulation could be more useful than the other two approaches as a tool to demonstrate the value of an information commons and show the way policy decisions affect it. First, agent-based systems are good at modelling non-linear systems. Many issues related to group behaviour within the commons have a non-linear nature; the technology lock-in derived from the network effect is one. Second, agent systems are a good way to combine several mathematical models for agent behaviour and the behaviour of the environment. Third, agent-based simulation, in contrast to models from economics, can handle the more natural case where each agent possesses a different decision-making procedure. Fourth, agents are the appropriate tool for examining the rationality of an agent, in particular its resource limited nature. Last, agent-based social simulation is a good way to visualise the behaviour of a complex system [EA96].
Addressing the issue of information sharing policies and the cooperative development of code is an interesting topic for agent researchers. There has been a lot of work recently that has looked at the internal resource allocation policies of agents, in particular how to adapt the notion of rationality to an agent that has only limited resources to work out a good plan of action for the future [RW91,SBB97]. information sharing policies and the structure of the information commons address the same issue at the societal level: how to organise the cooperative behaviour of a society of agents so that the bounded rationality of the individual agents leads to behaviour that is optimal for the agent society as a whole.Potential Areas for Research
Which are the areas related to the information commons where agent-based social simulation could guide policy making more effectively? The following is a tentative list: